Amine Content of Selected Foods

Very few foods have been tested systematically for amine content. Amines are found naturally in some fruits and vegetables, however in the case of meat, dairy products, alcoholic drinks and other fermented foods, amines are usually formed by bacterial degradation. This means that the amine content of foods is highly variable and very hard to quantifyThe below information is therefore for illustrative purposes only.

Cheeses, beers and wine are extremely variable in amine content, with content varying between different brands and even different batches of the same product. Live, ‘wild’ beers and cheeses from small breweries and dairies can sometimes have a very high amine content and should be regarded with caution.

Five milligrams is a reasonable starting point from which to determine sensitivity. Most unaffected people tolerate much higher doses of amines (up to 100mg), though individuals sensitive to amines are known to tolerate as little or less than 5mg of tyramine. Ideally amines should be reduced to near zero before attempting to determine sensitivity levels as specific reactions are rarely noticed during chronic consumption.

Please bear in mind that you are not automatically allowed to eat these foods on the elimination diet as some appear low in amines in these lists, but experience tells us that they are not necessarily safe, or they are likely to contain salicylates or glutamates which must also be avoided. It is not possible to determine whether you have a problem with food chemicals merely by eliminating all amines or specific amines. You must also eliminate glutamates and salicylates at the same time. If a food is not listed do not assume that it is safe. Foods that are not listed have not been tested. If you have done the elimination diet and have determined you are only sensitive to amines (an uncommon scenario), you may use this table as a starting point, but it should not be relied upon as a reference.

hard cheeses

Histamine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholBeerlager, pilsener01
Beerlight0.61Beer
Beernon alcoholic01Beer
Beerpale0.51Beer
WineHungarian0.12Wine
Winewhite, German sekt0.71Wine
Animal FoodSausage63.82
Mackerel01Mackerel
DairyButtermilk01
Cheeseappenzeller, 11% fat151Cheese
Cheeseappenzeller, 32% fat171Cheese
Cheeseblue, Roquefort503Cheese
Cheesecamembert73Cheese
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp213Cheese
Cheesecheddar, medium143Cheese
Cheesecheddar, mild193Cheese
Cheesecheddar, sharp113Cheese
Cheesecolby73Cheese
Cheeseemmental2.31Cheese
Cheesegouda7.53Cheese
Cheesegruyere6.61Cheese
Cheesequark, fresh01Cheese
Cheeserouquefort6.51Cheese
Cheesesap-sago2603Cheese
Cheesetilsit271Cheese
Creamsour01Cream
Creamwhipping0.21Cream
Milkwhole0.11Milk
Yoghurtwhole01Yoghurt
FruitGrapejuice0.011

Tryptamine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholWineHungarian0.012
Animal FoodSausage362
Tunacanned, in oil0.11Tuna
DairyCheeseblue, Roquefort203
Cheesecamembert23Cheese
Cheesecheddar0.11Cheese
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp23Cheese
Cheesecheddar, medium23Cheese
Cheesecheddar, mild33Cheese
Cheesecheddar, sharp43Cheese
Cheesecolby133Cheese
Cheeseedam83Cheese
Cheesegouda73Cheese
Cheeselimburger163Cheese
Cheesemozzerella103Cheese
Cheesemuenster63Cheese
Cheeseport-salut123Cheese
Cheeseport-salut283Cheese
Cheesesap-sago153Cheese
Cheeseswiss193Cheese
FruitApple0.534
Banana1.134Banana
Orange0.13Orange
Pineapple0.624Pineapple
Pomegranate0.474Pomegranate
Strawberries0.474Strawberries
GrainsBarley2.524
Rice4.014Rice
SeasoningsGarlic1.394
Ginger3.714Ginger
VegetablesCabbage0.774
Carrot1.584Carrot
Cauliflower1.984Cauliflower
Chives02Chives
Corn6.174Corn
Cucumber1.284Cucumber
Onion0.924Onion
Potato04Potato
Radish1.474Radish
Tomato0.41Tomato
Tomato0.934Tomato
Turnip2.124Turnip

Tyramine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholBeerlager, pilsener0.121
Beernon alcoholic0.141Beer
WineHungarian0.062Wine
Animal FoodChickenliver101
Oxliver271Ox
Sausage122Sausage
Tunacanned, in oil01Tuna
BeveragesCocoadry, powder, sweetened0.065
DairyCheeseappenzeller, 11% fat51
Cheeseappenzeller, 32% fat61Cheese
Cheeseblue, Roquefort363Cheese
Cheesebrick526Cheese
Cheesebrie43Cheese
Cheesebrie263Cheese
Cheesecamembert123Cheese
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp273Cheese
Cheesecheddar, medium243Cheese
Cheesecheddar, mild93Cheese
Cheesecheddar, processed113Cheese
Cheesecheddar, sharp213Cheese
Cheesecheddar, smoked123Cheese
Cheesecolby213Cheese
Cheesecottage03Cheese
Cheesecream06Cheese
Cheeseedam313Cheese
Cheeseemmental41Cheese
Cheesefontinella103Cheese
Cheesegjetost123Cheese
Cheesegouda293Cheese
Cheesegruyere526Cheese
Cheesejack133Cheese
Cheeselimburger123Cheese
Cheesemozzerella163Cheese
Cheesemuenster143Cheese
Cheeseparmesan283Cheese
Cheeseport-salut123Cheese
Cheeseport-salut183Cheese
Cheesequark, fresh01Cheese
Cheeseromano143Cheese
Cheesesap-sago523Cheese
Cheesestilton463Cheese
Cheeseswiss413Cheese
Cheesetilsit31Cheese
Creamsour0.141Cream
Creamwhipping0.171Cream
Buttermilk0.221Buttermilk
Yoghurtwhole0.131Yoghurt
FruitAvocado2.37
Banana0.71Banana
Orange11Orange
Raspberries51Raspberries
SeasoningsSaucesoy0.187
SweetsChocolatedark0.075
Chocolatelight0.035Chocolate
VegetablesChives0.82
Sauerkraut21Sauerkraut
Tomato0.41Tomato

References

  1. Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H., 2000. Food composition and nutrition tables 6th edn. (eds), CRC Press.
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