Amine Content of Selected Foods

Very few foods have been tested systematically for amine content. Amines are found naturally in some fruits and vegetables, however in the case of meat, dairy products, alcoholic drinks and other fermented foods, amines are usually formed by bacterial degradation. This means that the amine content of foods is highly variable and very hard to quantifyThe below information is therefore for illustrative purposes only.

Cheeses, beers and wine are extremely variable in amine content, with content varying between different brands and even different batches of the same product. Live, ‘wild’ beers and cheeses from small breweries and dairies can sometimes have a very high amine content and should be regarded with caution.

Five milligrams is a reasonable starting point from which to determine sensitivity. Most unaffected people tolerate much higher doses of amines (up to 100mg), though individuals sensitive to amines are known to tolerate as little or less than 5mg of tyramine. Ideally amines should be reduced to near zero before attempting to determine sensitivity levels as specific reactions are rarely noticed during chronic consumption.

Please bear in mind that you are not automatically allowed to eat these foods on the elimination diet as some appear low in amines in these lists, but experience tells us that they are not necessarily safe, or they are likely to contain salicylates or glutamates which must also be avoided. It is not possible to determine whether you have a problem with food chemicals merely by eliminating all amines or specific amines. You must also eliminate glutamates and salicylates at the same time. If a food is not listed do not assume that it is safe. Foods that are not listed have not been tested. If you have done the elimination diet and have determined you are only sensitive to amines (an uncommon scenario), you may use this table as a starting point, but it should not be relied upon as a reference.

hard cheeses

Histamine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholBeerlager, pilsener01
Beerlight0.61
Beernon alcoholic01
Beerpale0.51
WineHungarian0.12
Winewhite, German sekt0.71
Animal FoodSausage63.82
Mackerel01
DairyButtermilk01
Cheeseappenzeller, 11% fat151
Cheeseappenzeller, 32% fat171
Cheeseblue, Roquefort503
Cheesecamembert73
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp213
Cheesecheddar, medium143
Cheesecheddar, mild193
Cheesecheddar, sharp113
Cheesecolby73
Cheeseemmental2.31
Cheesegouda7.53
Cheesegruyere6.61
Cheesequark, fresh01
Cheeserouquefort6.51
Cheesesap-sago2603
Cheesetilsit271
Creamsour01
Creamwhipping0.21
Milkwhole0.11
Yoghurtwhole01
FruitGrapejuice0.011

Tryptamine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholWineHungarian0.012
Animal FoodSausage362
Tunacanned, in oil0.11
DairyCheeseblue, Roquefort203
Cheesecamembert23
Cheesecheddar0.11
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp23
Cheesecheddar, medium23
Cheesecheddar, mild33
Cheesecheddar, sharp43
Cheesecolby133
Cheeseedam83
Cheesegouda73
Cheeselimburger163
Cheesemozzerella103
Cheesemuenster63
Cheeseport-salut123
Cheeseport-salut283
Cheesesap-sago153
Cheeseswiss193
FruitApple0.534
Banana1.134
Orange0.13
Pineapple0.624
Pomegranate0.474
Strawberries0.474
GrainsBarley2.524
Rice4.014
SeasoningsGarlic1.394
Ginger3.714
VegetablesCabbage0.774
Carrot1.584
Cauliflower1.984
Chives02
Corn6.174
Cucumber1.284
Onion0.924
Potato04
Radish1.474
Tomato0.41
Tomato0.934
Turnip2.124

Tyramine Content of Selected Foods

GROUPNAMEDETAILAVG PER 100GREF
AlcoholBeerlager, pilsener0.121
Beernon alcoholic0.141
WineHungarian0.062
Animal FoodChickenliver101
Oxliver271
Sausage122
Tunacanned, in oil01
BeveragesCocoadry, powder, sweetened0.065
DairyCheeseappenzeller, 11% fat51
Cheeseappenzeller, 32% fat61
Cheeseblue, Roquefort363
Cheesebrick526
Cheesebrie43
Cheesebrie263
Cheesecamembert123
Cheesecheddar, extra sharp273
Cheesecheddar, medium243
Cheesecheddar, mild93
Cheesecheddar, processed113
Cheesecheddar, sharp213
Cheesecheddar, smoked123
Cheesecolby213
Cheesecottage03
Cheesecream06
Cheeseedam313
Cheeseemmental41
Cheesefontinella103
Cheesegjetost123
Cheesegouda293
Cheesegruyere526
Cheesejack133
Cheeselimburger123
Cheesemozzerella163
Cheesemuenster143
Cheeseparmesan283
Cheeseport-salut123
Cheeseport-salut183
Cheesequark, fresh01
Cheeseromano143
Cheesesap-sago523
Cheesestilton463
Cheeseswiss413
Cheesetilsit31
Creamsour0.141
Creamwhipping0.171
Buttermilk0.221
Yoghurtwhole0.131
FruitAvocado2.37
Banana0.71
Orange11
Raspberries51
SeasoningsSaucesoy0.187
SweetsChocolatedark0.075
Chocolatelight0.035
VegetablesChives0.82
Sauerkraut21
Tomato0.41

References

  1. Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H., 2000. Food composition and nutrition tables 6th edn. (eds), CRC Press.
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  3. Voight MN, Eitenmiller RR, Koehler PE, and Hamdy, MK., 1974. Tyramine, histamine and tryptamine content of cheese. J. Milk Food Technol. 37:377-381.
  4. Badria FA., 2002. Melatonin, serotonin, and tryptamine in some egyptian food and medicinal plants. J Med Food. 2002 Fall;5(3):153-7. [PubMed]
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